The National Green Tribunal or the NGT is a specialized tribunal which was formed by NGT act 2010. The tribunal comprises of chairperson, 10-20 Judicial members and 10-20 expert members.
The jurisdiction of the tribunal is restricted to only civil disputes where the subject matter is environment related issues. The tribunal also serves as an appellate authority where the decision of statutory bodies which were adjudicated under water act, air act, environment protection act, National biological diversity act can be appealed.
The relief which can be provided by the tribunal includes injunctions, compensation, rehabilitation of people, impose penalties. The unique feature of the tribunal is that it’s decisions are based on international principles like strict liability, polluter pays principle, precautionary principle.
Any aggrieved person, A body of person, company, Government organization can be parties in the tribunal. Recently there are many cases where public interest litigation on issues like sand mining, infrastructure projects and cutting of trees in urban areas came up before the tribunal and resulted in rigorous interim orders in these subject matter.
The National green tribunal with its unique features really increased the disposal rate of environmental related issues.