What is an Evidence in court of Law

The law of evidence is a procedural law,i.e it neither abridges or gives any right, it is lexfori. The Evidence act permits that evidence can only be tendered for the-: 

1. Facts in Issue

2. Relevant Facts

There can be two types of Evidence which can be tendered.

1. Oral Evidence

2. Documentary Evidence(Includes Electronic records)

The Evidence contains three states

1. Evidence which has proved a fact in issue.

2. Evidence which has been disproved and that the fact in issue is inadmissible.

3. Evidence which needs to be tendered.

Evidence in the form of Admission is a weak form of evidence which needs scrutiny.

Confessional statements to the magistrate is a strong form of evidence.

Dying Declaration to magistrate is strong evidence, whereas to police officer is a weak form of evidence.

Documentary evidence can be of two types-Primary for those whose original copies are produced, Secondary means duplicate copies of the documents.

Admission serves as an Estoppel and act as substantive evidence.

For a judge arriving at a decision considers Facts in issues, Relevant facts, Facts which are proved,Strong and weak admissions and all the Cross examination statements as well examination in chief statements to arrive at a conclusion.

FROM WHERE IS THIS POPULATION COMING?

While scrolling through the pages of Current GK, I came across a bulletin, which read as, “India tops the list of first day deaths.” This implies that children in India die on the same day of their birth more than any other country in this world. This is according to the latest report published by State Of The World’s Mothers 2013. Conferring this report, it is to be stated that over 309,300 children in India die before a day. This amounts to 29% of global share. But, India has a surviving population which shares 17.5% of world’s total. In 2011, the Indian population was 1 210, 193, 422, i.e., 17.5%. The population growth was 181 million in the decade 2001-11. When I researched more on this, I came across some interesting facts. The Infant Mortality Rate is 44 per 1000 live births in the country as per Sample Registration System, 2011. India ranks 136 in the Human Development Index.
To increase the Death Rates several schemes are in process. One of which is the Mid-day meal scheme. This year, especially in the state of Bihar Mid-day meals have played a very important in curbing the discarded population. Leaders have significantly contributed indirectly, may be not, directly in helping curb the population problem. Then again, nature has played a very important role by causing floods, tsunami, earthquakes, landslides and many more. Moreover, people die of diseases, expired medicines, road and rail accidents, murders and suicides; even then the population is growing. Government also has implemented its health initiatives by introducing contraceptives and other precautions at a minimum rate. The minimum age of girls to marry at 18 and boys to marry at 19 has strictly been adhered and, the family planning advisory is working everywhere.
Beyond all this, the Indian population has grown. The various schemes of government to curb and control population have failed. The reason is simple, population growth. The population of poor people has also decreased significantly since, Rs. 12 provides for a meal. That means we have more people now who can survive on their own. Also, since the population below poverty line is comparatively less now; this means that quality money will be spent on a few poor people left now. No doubt, a large quantity of mass will suffer by the virtue of not being poor. They won’t be benefited by the BPL endeavors. The question strikes me again, ‘Will the population increase’? The answer whatever it is, I don’t know.
The conclusion which I arrive at is birth has anyways defeated death.

How to register a marriage?

Registration of Marriages which have already been solemnised.

Q. Where do I have to go and during which hours?

To the office of Sub-Divisional Magistrate in whose jurisdiction any of the husband or wife resides, during 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. on any working day to obtain the contact address of the SDM in whose jurisdiction in your colony lies.

Q. Which papers/documents/fees, do I take with me?

  1. Application form duly signed by both husband and wife.
  2. Documentary evidence of date of birth of parties (Matriculation Certificate / Passport / Birth Certificate) Minimum age of both parties is 21 years at the time of registration under the Special Marriage Act.
  3. Ration card of husband or wife whose area SDM has been approached for the certificate.
  4. In case of Special Marriage Act, documentary evidence regarding stay in Delhi of the parties for more than 30 days (ration card or report from the concerned SHO).
  5. Affidavit by both the parties stating place and date of marriage, date of birth, marital status at the time of marriage and nationality.
  6. Two passport size photographs of both the parties and one marriage photograph.
  7. Marriage invitation card, if available.
  8. If marriage was solemnized in a religious place, a certificate from the priest is required who solemnized the marriage.
  9. Rs. 100/- in case of Hindu Marriage Act and Rs.150/- in case of Special Marriage Act to be deposited with the cashier of District and the receipt should be attached with the application form.

  1. Affirmation that the parties are not related to each other within the prohibited degree of relationship as per Hindu Marriage Act or Special Marriage Act as the case may be. For details of such relationships  Attested copy of divorce decree/order in case of a divorcee and death certificate of spouse in case of widow/widower.
  2. In case one of the parties belong to other than Hindu, Budhist, Jain and Sikh religions, a conversion certificate from the priest who solemnized the marriage(in case of Hindu Marriage Act).

All documents excluding receipt should be attested by a Gazetted Officer.

Solemnisation of Marriage under Special Marriage Act

Special Marriage Act, 1954 provides for solemnisation of marriages in accordance with the provisions of the Act. SDMs/ADMs/Deputy Commissioners have been authorised as Marriage Officers for this purpose.

Q. Where do I have to go and during which hours?

To the office of Sub-Divisional Magistrate in whose jurisdiction any of the husband or wife resides, during 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 Noon on any working day. Click Here to obtain the contact address of the SDM in whose jurisdiction in your colony lies.

Q. Which papers/documents/fees, do I take with me?

  1. Application form duly filled and signed by the bride and the groom.
  2. Fee of Rs.15/- is to be deposited with cashier of District and the receipt should be attached with the form.
  3. Documentary evidence of date of birth of both parties (Matriculation Certificate/Passport/Birth Certificate).
  4. Documentary evidence regarding stay in Delhi of one of the parties for more than 30 days (ration card or report from the concerned SHO).
  5. Separate affidavits from bride and groom giving:
    1. Date of birth.
    2. Present marital status: unmarried/widower/ divorcee.
    3. Affirmation that the parties are not related to each other within the degree of prohibited relationship defined in the Special Marriage Act.
  6. Passport size photographs of both parties (2 copies each) duly attested by a Gazetted Officer.
  7. Copy of divorce decree/order in case of a divorcee and death certificate of spouse in case of widow/widower.

Q. What will be the criteria used while deciding my case?

For solemnization of marriage, presence of both parties is required after submission of documents of issuance of notice of intended marriage. A copy of the notice is pasted on the office notice board by the SDM. Any person may within 30 days of issue of notice , file objection to the intended marriages. In such a case, the SDM shall not solemnise the marriage until he has decided the objection, within 30 days of its receipt. If the SDM refuses to solemnise the marriage, any of the parties may file an appeal within 30 days to the District Court. In case no objection is received, the SDM solemnises the marriage after 30 days of the notice. Both parties alongwith 3 witnesses are required to be present on the date of solemnisation of marriage. It is advisable to submit names of witnesses atleast one day in advance.

Procedure for Transfer of ownership of Vehicle Delhi

The transfer of ownership of a vehicle is to be applied in the concerned zonal office where vehicle is already registered and following are the documents to be submitted:-

  1. Registration certificate in original
  2. Form no.29 duly filled in duplicate (attested one copy)
  3. Form no.30 duly filled in duplicate
  4. Attested copy of valid insurance certificate
  5. Attested copy of address proof of purchaser
  6. Attested copy of valid Pollution Under Control Certificate
  7. Prescribed fee along with penalty if the transfer of ownership not applied within 14 days from the date of purchase.
  8. Attested copy of PAN Card or Form 60 & 61(as applicable)

Note: Application should be submitted with in 14 days otherwise penalty of Rs 100/- per month will be charged

Note: Attested copy means photo copy attested by MLA/ Nigam Parshad/ Gazetted officer/ notary/ public.

 

Degree of Expression (Cinematography)

Cinematography:

Image

Cinema when you hear this word everyone is excited about latest flicks, stars, action, songs and what not. The world is surrounded by huge some of entertainment channels one of it is cinema or call it movies. The art of making films, shooting, picturising is called as cinematography including both making and development of the film, the person who makes films are called cinematographers or film directors.

Now a day’s people say that the olden day’s pictures are far better than the present ones as they had a lot of meaning in them and most importantly they were clean without much lascivious acts or too much action. When compared to the yester year movies there is a lot of change in the attitude of the makers of the movie and to that extent even viewers call it due to globalization or technical advancement of film making. Movies now are not in a position to be watchable with the family, they have been divided into A, U/A, S,U categories respectively.

Coming to the governing and stabilizing part of movies there is a body called Central Board of film Certification. This statutory body is created under Ministry of information and broadcasting which administers and governs the publishing of films under the provisions of “Cinematography act 1952”.

The board consists of Non-official members who are selected by the central government from all walks of people with knowledge and proficiency. It has its headquarters in Mumbai with nine regional councils in Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Delhi etc, the certification process of the films is done according to the Cinematography (certification rules) 1983 under the cinematography act 1952 and the guidelines issued by the government under Sec 5(b).

The purpose of protecting culture and society was given to the board under the said act the act was passed with provisions for certification of films for exhibitions by means of cinematograph but this body had often been challenged for imposing unnecessary and unreasonable restrictions, taboos under the veil of protecting culture.

Most of the time we hear the word obscenity in movies but the degree of obscenity is changes with the changing mindsets of the people, at one point of time which was wrong a greater obscene it isn’t now so the courts after going through several cases laid on this issue and has given the test of obscenity in Hicklins case  in this case the issues were concerned are that the tendency of the matter charged as obscene is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences because it is quite clear that it would suggest to the minds of young or to person of more advanced years, thoughts of a most impure and libido character.

In Samaresh bose and others v amal mitra the matter concerned was that when the judge in deciding the degree of obscenity he should place himself in the position of the author.

Sec 5(a) of the Cinematography act 1952 the applicant or any distributor to whom rights in the film has been passed shall not be punished under any law relating to obscenity for which certification has been granted, it is this positive right vested into the moviemakers for which he cannot be punished. So according to the said provision the board has to be careful in giving the requisite certificate before giving the rights of publishing because once the rights are given the burden shifts on the board and not on the film maker to prove innocence.

To conclude the degree of obscenity is in the minds of film maker and the viewers, each one has his own right to express his views in our country but people should keep in mind this proverb “ The right to swing my fist ends where the other mans my nose begins”.

By-Taruni Banda

Understanding Disinvestment

Disinvestment of a company basically means the action of an organization or government selling or liquidating an asset or subsidiary. It is also known as “divestiture“. It may also be a reduction in capital expenditure, or the decision of a company not to replenish depleted capital goods. Thus Disinvestment refers to the sale or liquidation of an asset or subsidiary of an organization or equity and bond capital by the government to the private sector. It also implies the sale of government’s loan capital in PSUs through securitization. However, it is the government and not the PSUs who receive money from disinvestment.

 In the BALCO Disinvestment case, Supreme Court considered the complex questions relating to effect of disinvestment on the employees and workers and whether the questions of policy and administrative matters and decision can be heard by Supreme Court. The Supreme Court delivered a very elaborate, exhaustive and thoughtful opinion on various issues related to the aspects of disinvestment. Through this article I have tried to analyze in brief the concept of disinvestment, discuss the case and relate it with the aspects of company law.

Full Article on-: http://jurisonline.in/?p=365

Tax Slabs and Calculation of Income Tax

The tax rates of the financial year 2014-15:-

Image

All the Rows are called as slabs that is slab one, two, three etc.

i. Income-tax: Tax slab for individuals

 

Income Slabs

Income Tax Rate

i.

Where the total income does not exceed Rs. 2,00,000/-.

NIL

ii.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 2,00,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 5,00,000/-.

10% of amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 2,00,000/-. 
Less: Tax Credit – 10% of taxable income upto a maximum of Rs. 2000/-.

iii.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 10,00,000/-.

Rs. 30,000/- + 20% of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/-.

iv.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-.

Rs. 130,000/- + 30% of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-.

Surcharge: 10% of the Income Tax, where total taxable income is more than Rs. 1 crore.

Education Cess: 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

 

 

II.Tax slabs for individuals who are resident in India above 60yrs but below 80yrs:- (Senior Citizens)

 

 

ate

i.

Where the total income does not exceed Rs. 2, 50,000/-.

NIL

ii.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 2,50,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 5,00,000/-

10% of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 2,50,000/-.

iii.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 10,00,000/-

Rs. 25,000/- + 20% of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 5, 00,000/-.

iv.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-

Rs. 125,000/- + 30% of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 10, 00,000/-.

Surcharge: 10% of the Income Tax, where total taxable income is more than Rs. 1 crore.

Education Cess: 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

 

The above table consists of tax slabs for persons who are above 60yrs who are termed as Senior Citizens. I would like to explain the calculation of tax here.

In the first slab a relaxation up to Rs.2, 50,000 is given to Senior Citizens so no tax I levied up to Rs.2, 50,000 for them.

Coming to the second slab where the total income exceeds Rs.2,50,000 but does not exceed Rs,500,000 then the tax is 10% of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs.2,50,000 but does not exceed Rs.5,00,000 i.e. if suppose the income is Rs.2,60,000 then the tax is Rs.2,60,000 * 10% which is Rs. 26,000.

Coming to the next  third slab where the total income exceeds Rs.5,00,000 but does not exceed Rs10,00,000 then the tax calculated is as follows i.e. if suppose the income is Rs.5,50,000 then the tax calculated is Rs.25,000 which is taken from the previous slab and then 20% of the amount which is exceeded by Rs.5,00,000, here the amount  which is exceeded by 5,00,000 is Rs.50,000 so the tax is Rs.25,000+50,000*20%=Rs.35,000.

Coming to the fourth slab where the total income exceeds Rs.10,00,000 the tax is calculated as follows Rs.1,25,000à(5,00,000-10,00,000=5,00,000*20%=100,000 taken from 3rd slab+25000 taken from 2nd  slab)  plus 30% of the amount which  exceeds Rs10,00,000 i.e. if the income is Rs10,50,000 then the tax to be paid is 1,25,000+50,000*30%= 140,000.

 

III.Tax slab for individual residents who are above 80yrs: – (Super Senior Citizens)

 

Income Slabs

Income Tax Rate

i.

Where the total income does not exceed Rs. 5,00,000/-.

NIL

ii.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 10,00,000/-

20% of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 5,00,000/-.

iii.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-

Rs. 100,000/- + 30% of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 10,00,000/-.

Surcharge: 10% of the Income Tax, where total taxable income is more than Rs. 1 crore.

Education Cess: 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

 

 

The Method of Calculation of tax Shown for the Senior Citizens is also to be applied in all the rest cases above.

 

iv. Co-Operative Societies:

 

Income Slabs

Income Tax Rate

i.

Where the total income does not exceed Rs. 10,000/-.

10% of the income.

ii.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 10,000/- but does not exceed Rs. 20,000/-.

Rs. 1,000/- + 20% of income in excess of Rs. 10,000/-.

iii.

Where the total income exceeds Rs. 20,000/-

Rs. 3.000/- + 30% of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 20,000/-.

Surcharge: 10% of the Income Tax, where total taxable income is more than Rs. 1 crore.

iii. Education Cess: 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

 

V. Firm

i. Income-tax: 30% of total income.

ii. Surcharge: 10% of the Income Tax, where total taxable income is more than Rs. 1 crore.

iii. Education Cess: 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

 

VI. Local Authority

i. Income-tax: 30% of total income.

ii. Surcharge: 10% of the Income Tax, where total taxable income is more than Rs. 1 crore.

iii. Education Cess: 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

 

VI. Domestic Company

i. Income-tax: 30% of total income.

ii. Surcharge: The amount of income tax as computed in accordance with above rates, and after being reduced by the amount of tax rebate shall be increased by a surcharge

  • At the rate of 5% of such income tax, provided that the total income exceeds Rs. 1 crore.
  • At the rate of 10% of such income tax, provided that the total income exceeds Rs. 10 crores.

iii. Education Cess: 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

 

VII. Company other than a Domestic Company

i. Income-tax:

  • @ 50% of on so much of the total income as consist of (a) royalties received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by it with the Government
    or the Indian concern after the 31st day of March, 1961 but before the 1st day of April, 1976; or (b) fees for rendering technical services received from Government or an Indian concern in pursuance of an agreement made by it with the Government or the Indian concern after the 29th day of February, 1964 but before the 1st day of April, 1976, and where such agreement has, in either case, been approved by the Central Government.
  • @ 40% of the balance

ii. Surcharge: The amount of income tax as computed in accordance with above rates, and after being reduced by the amount of tax rebate shall be increased by a surcharge as under

  • At the rate of 2% of such income tax, provided that the total income exceeds Rs. 1 crore.
  • At the rate of 5% of such income tax, provided that the total income exceeds Rs. 10 crores.

iii. Education Cess: 3% of the total of Income Tax and Surcharge.

 

Credits for the tax tables:-Finotax

 

-By Taruni Banda

Being Gay

I remember a nursery rhyme, “Work while you work, Play while you work, this is the way to be happy and gay.” I guess I was 5 years of age or maybe 6 when I used to recite this rhyme. For me, when I was happy, I was gay. When my heart was filled with joy, I was gay, of course. Now when I am nineteen, even the thought of being gay scares me.

With the ascending progress in age stems change, physical and intellectual. The bodily development is inevitable but, the understanding part is now a problem for me. This has infringed my right to be ‘GAY’. I want to be GAY, but this may be embarrassing. Society may not accept me. The reason lies in being GAY; GAY is somebody who is homosexual or, someone to whom the same sex attracts.

The principle of magnets states that opposites attract. The customary system of making love demands opposite sexes too. Nature demands a sexuality which is straight. Hence, the idea of being GAY fails everywhere. Finally, the idea of calling yourself GAY is offensive. Moreover, calling somebody GAY is implied as abusing someone. A part of the society though demands safeguards for the rights of that part of society and, fortunately has succeeded at few places and many more milestones are to be achieved. But, GAY is an abusive and offensive term, this cannot be ignored. The evidence is truth, since, what the society accepts and what the majority consents to is truth.

The query which now haunts my mind is the peculiarity of English language. Why does this language have such a homonym? Isn’t this a violation of rights of the word “GAY” which resides in English vocabulary? When one wishes to say I am Gay, meaning I am happy; isn’t the social factor haunting the vocal cords of that individual every time? The problem is more social and emotional, than literal.

Gays are never meant to be Gay.  You are dog would be more acceptable to me, than you are a gay. Surprisingly, this (GAY) term neither turns one an alien or a monster. Nor does this indoctrinate all the good qualities in a human being. A human being is always a human being who has the right to live with dignity; the virtue of being human grants one with this right. Being human we have the right to live with dignity and let others live with dignity. With women rights, the case limits to discrimination but with gay rights, it extends to humiliation. And humiliating a section on the basis of their inclination in my understanding is wrong. Because being GAY is not just being GAY; it’s a revolution. Revolutions have always been welcomed, happily or, reluctantly. One can be anything, GAY or, GAY.

AVENGING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

Number is a foundation of classification. It places us in a social order. The number in which we are represented in the face of our group keeps our indicators of strength updated.  The very first appearance may look number biased; especially when we discharge all are rights and duties in a democratic setup. The methodology is not always democratic, though. Majority is bound to win in this setup and, they essentially form the setup ideally.

Now, when I am in college, the only revolution I dare to remember with suitable facts and figures is the French Revolution. According to the text books, the ruling or the dominating class was a minority. They were somewhat around 2% in strength but possessed around 95% of capital. This instance negates the ideology and the very basis of democracy. Not to forget, the French society was never democratic during that time. It was this revolution which helped flourishing the messages of justice, liberty and equality. Attaining independence from the minority rule was the root to the rebel that occurred, and the motive was to establish a majority control.

According to the UN Declaration of 18th December, 1992, “States shall protect the existence of the National or Ethnic, Cultural, Religious and Linguistic identity of minorities within their respective territories and encourage conditions for the promotion of that identity.”  Abiding by similar principles, National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992 is into existence and different other institutions for the protection of minorities have been structured throughout the nation. Also, article 30(1) of the Indian Constitution states that, “All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.” Taking these as precedents, we can say that protection of minority is an important agenda of this era. This is in contradiction with the fruits which shed from the tree of French Revolt.

The sex ratio in India is 940 females per 1000 males (Census 2011). Women face numerous atrocities and are subjected to all kinds of violence. An increment in the sex ratio is always recommended whenever issues of women empowerment are discussed. Now, by analogy what inference can be drawn is that females face all evils due to them being in minority. The societal system though provides for safeguards for saving their rights which are practically less applied.

In India on the basis of religious classification, all religions except Hinduism are under the ambit of minority. Further, Punjabis residing in Maharashtra can also be termed a minority group and so on.  There have been instances for communal violence arising in the nation one of which been the Orissa case where Christians (minority) were attacked by Hindus (majority). In the value judgement, the majority was held liable and was judged to be wrong. In almost all of the cases, the Hindu majority has been held accountable. But, an opposing example emerges when we talk about the Kashmiri Hindus residing in Jammu & Kashmir. They have faced so much terror in the state that they are demanding a separate state. They are demanding for protection; socially they are in minority but, constitutionally they form a part of the majority. Here, apparently a tail of the French coin is in request.

The question which now lies is, is it relevant to determine the number based classification criteria for a nation which has 28 states and supports a population over 100 crores? Shouldn’t it be different for different regions according to the merits associated with them? One more picture of French Revolution is clicked when we seek the instances when a large capital is concentrated in the hands of a few. Some help the capital in growing and some aid in the exploitation. The point to be noted is that they are again in minority; collateral to the French revolution. No doubt, we have been debating cons for them most of the time. The whole system now plants a dilemma whether our nation is in the pre French revolution era or in the post. ‘VIVE!’

 

Right To Education

Image

Education for freedom was organized to promote human right at every level of society. Human right should be a part of not just the law, but everybody’s life style, by working to promote awareness. Education for freedom hopes not only to respond to human rights violations, but to stop them from happening in the first place. A new generation of human rights activities needs education because democracy had been absent for two decades, it had to be re taught and non-violence introduced as an alternative means of change. Only when people know their rights can they stand up for them.
Right to education (RTE) is an Indian legislation enacted by parliament on India on 4 august 2009, which described the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children of 6 to 14 of age in India, under article 21a of the Indian constitution.
India became one of 135 countries to make “education a fundamental right” of every child when the act came in to free on 1 April 2010.
The RTE act 2009 stipulates that private schools reserve 25% of seats at entry level for children belonging to backward group or weaker section. The act originally defined for a child belonging to a backward group as one belong to a SC, ST, socially and educationally backward class or such other group facing disadvantage owing to social cultural, economic, geographical linguistic gender or other similar factor.
Is RTE act working in practice?
In the year 1960, the free mid day meal scheme was introduced for protecting child from hunger, increasing school enrollment and attendance. But this scheme is not carried out properly with lack of quality and hygienic meal which led to death of many children.
The Act has to be effective so that the down trodden children will be benefited. Literacy rate of the youngsters will be directly proportional to the betterment of the country.
Other problem: Various kinds of schools
It’s a strange irony that while on the one hand the government wants to provide quality education to all children, across all barriers, on the other hand it recognizes four kinds of schools under the Right to Education Act.
• Government schools
• Government-aided schools
• Special schools recognized by the government such as kendriya vidyalayas, navodaya vidyalaya and sainik schools. There are others at the state level too
• Private schools
With such a variety of schools, it is only natural that quality of education varies. Once again it boils down to the rich being able to afford better quality education and the poor having to compromise with something inferior.
So what is the need of the day?
Government has to take further steps for the implementation of the act. Some of them are as follows:
• Each state should prepare a set of model rules for the implementation of the right to education, with the participation of the community and other stake holders.
• The government should ensure that all the government schools are well equipped to take in students so that they are not left with the sole choice of going to private schools.
• School management committees should be provided with necessary financial and other support by the state to go about their duties.

By-Samskruthi Mitra